When a database file gets full and it needs more space, a growth event will happen. The size of said database growth can be set within the database options, or can be done using the ALTER DATABASE statement as shown below.
Setting maximum database file sizes in SQL Server is something you’d ideally not have to set, but it’s a good last resort option available if you need it.
It’s a solid best practise to have TempDB files stored in separate drive, away from your C: drive. This is because TempDB can grow very large, very quickly (within minutes);
This post contains a script to show database and log file growth events on a SQL Server instance. I often find a need to use this script to check what databases have been growing on unmonitored SQL Servers.