When a database file gets full and it needs more space, a growth event will happen. The size of said database growth can be set within the database options, or can be done using the ALTER DATABASE statement as shown below.
Setting maximum database file sizes in SQL Server is something you’d ideally not have to set, but it’s a good last resort option available if you need it.
It’s a solid best practise to have TempDB files stored in separate drive, away from your C: drive. This is because TempDB can grow very large, very quickly (within minutes);
This script will give you a quick view of data or log growth events on a SQL Server instance. I occasionally use this to check what’s been growing on unmonitored instances.
You can quickly check disk space info on a SQL Server host by running the query below. I sometimes find this the quickest way to check available space rather than using PowerShell or the Windows GUI.